In severe cases of acne, a visit to dermatologist or skin specialist is required to get rid of acne. Prescribed medication is needed for severe acne. Medication can be in the form of oral antibiotics, cream or lotion.
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The predisposition to acne for specific individuals is likely explained by a genetic component, a theory which is supported by studies examining the rates of acne among twins and first-degree relatives. Severe acne may be associated with XYY syndrome. Acne susceptibility is likely due to the influence of multiple genes, as the disease does not follow a classic (Mendelian) inheritance pattern. Multiple gene candidates have been proposed including certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 genes, among others. Increased risk is associated with the 308 G/A single nucleotide polymorphism variation in the gene for TNF.
• Widespread nutritional deficiencies of zinc, omega-3 fats, and some anti-inflammatory omega-6 fats like evening-primrose oil promote acne, while supplementing with them can help boost immunity and reduce inflammation and acne.
Coconut oil is an emollient and hydrates the skin to keep it supple. It also has antibacterial properties due to which it is added to moisturizers and lotions (26). Its antioxidants heal the skin and help in the regeneration of skin cells (27). Be it adult acne or teenage acne due to hormonal changes, coconut oil is a remedy for all.
Blackheads are a mild form of acne that appear as unsightly, open pores that appear darker than the skin surrounding them. They get their dark appearance from a skin pigment called melanin, which oxidizes and turns black when it’s exposed to the air. Blackheads aren’t caused by dirt, but by sebum (oil) and dead skin cells blocking the pore. If the pore remains open, it becomes a blackhead; if it’s completely blocked and closed, it turns into a whitehead.
Tretinoin is available as a 0.05% cream, and should be applied thinly, once daily. Application should be “built up” to avoid adverse effects: on the first night, apply for five minutes before washing off; on the second night, apply for ten minutes; on subsequent nights, increase the application time by 30 minutes until a two-hour application is achieved, at which point the cream can be left on overnight.7, 8
Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disease of the pilosebaceous unit and develops due to blockages in the skin’s hair follicles. These blockages are thought to occur as a result of the following four abnormal processes: a higher than normal amount of oily sebum production (influenced by androgens), excessive deposition of the protein keratin leading to comedo formation, colonization of the follicle by Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacteria, and the local release of pro-inflammatory chemicals in the skin.
This type of oral medication is only useful and appropriate for acne cases in adult women. Spironolactone is not designed for acne treatment, but has proven to clear the skin after long-term use. This acne medicine is actually meant to treat conditions that result from too much aldosterone by preventing the body from absorbing too much salt and regulating potassium levels.
Topical therapy is the standard of care for mild to moderate acne.3 Retinoids and antimicrobials such as benzoyl peroxide and antibiotics are the mainstay of topical acne therapy. Such treatments are active at application sites, and they can prevent new lesions.4 The main side effect is local irritation. Gels, pledgets (medication-soaked pads), washes and solutions tend to be drying and are helpful for oily skin. Lotions, creams and ointments are beneficial for dry, easily irritated skin. Most topical preparations require at least six to eight weeks before an improvement is seen; they may be used for years as needed.6
Hydroquinone lightens the skin when applied topically by inhibiting tyrosinase, the enzyme responsible for converting the amino acid tyrosine to the skin pigment melanin, and is used to treat acne-associated postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. By interfering with new production of melanin in the epidermis, hydroquinone leads to less hyperpigmentation as darkened skin cells are naturally shed over time. Improvement in skin hyperpigmentation is typically seen within six months when used twice daily. Hydroquinone is ineffective for hyperpigmentation affecting deeper layers of skin such as the dermis. The use of a sunscreen with SPF 15 or higher in the morning with reapplication every two hours is recommended when using hydroquinone. Its application only to affected areas lowers the risk of lightening the color of normal skin but can lead to a temporary ring of lightened skin around the hyperpigmented area. Hydroquinone is generally well-tolerated; side effects are typically mild (e.g., skin irritation) and occur with use of a higher than the recommended 4% concentration. Most preparations contain the preservative sodium metabisulfite, which has been linked to rare cases of allergic reactions including anaphylaxis and severe asthma exacerbations in susceptible people. In extremely rare cases, repeated improper topical application of high-dose hydroquinone has been associated with an accumulation of homogentisic acid in connective tissues, a condition known as exogenous ochronosis.
Contrary to the marketing promises of “blemish banishers” and “zit zappers,” immediate results are not the trademark of acne treatments — a frustrating truth to anyone suffering through a breakout. And while pimples are personal (your stress-induced spots will look and act differently than your best friend’s breakout), the best acne treatments will include a regimen of products to hit all of acne’s root causes.
To avoid these possible outcomes, dermatologists recommend that people treat acne. When the skin clears, treatment should continue. Treatment prevents new breakouts. Your dermatologist can tell you when you no longer need to treat acne to prevent breakouts.
The make-up we use can affect acne, so it’s wise to invest in a more breathable brand. Dr. Wong says: “If possible, avoid the heavier foundations. The mineral make-up lines are much lighter and allow the skin to breathe a lot more. Make-up brand Vichy has a concealer stick which is non-comedogenic (doesn’t block your pores).
70% ethanol. Note: If you are ordering this chemical through Carolina Biological Supply Company, the chemical must be ordered by a teacher and shipped to a school or business address, so plan accordingly.
Herbal, organic, and “natural” medications. There are many herbal, organic, and natural products marketed to treat or prevent acne. The effectiveness of these agents isn’t proven and they are unlikely to have much benefit.
Strawberries contain a very important ingredient called salicyclic acid. This is the primary active ingredient is several commercial formulations used to treat pimples. Salicyclic acid stimulates the epidermis (the upper layer of the skin) to shed its cells faster. So the clogged pores open up and the bacteria get neutralized. This substance also encourages the development of fresh skin cells and the subsequent closing of the pores to prevent fresh infection.