^ Jump up to: a b Rolfe, HM (December 2014). “A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects”. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (Review). 13 (4): 324–8. doi:10.1111/jocd.12119. PMID 25399625.
Acne scars are deep indentations that are usually caused from picking at a blemish (though not always). They take much longer to remove and and can only be erased with laser treatment. Atrophic scars appear as indentations in the skin. One type of atrophic scarring commonly seen as a result of acne is often referred to as an “ice pick” scar, which appears more deep than wide. Hypertrophic scars appear as thick, raised bumps on the surface of skin.
Benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid aren’t wonder drugs. Benzoyl peroxide will get rid of about 70% of your pimples. Salicylic acid will get rid of about 60% of your blackheads. Together, they don’t get rid of 130% of your blemishes.
Chemical peels: Whether the superficial peels (like glycolic acid) performed by estheticians or deeper ones performed in the doctor’s office, chemical peels are of modest, supportive benefit only, and in general, they do not substitute for regular therapy.
Combination medications are exactly what they sound like—acne medications that harness the power of two acne-fighting ingredients in one bottle. These are generally made up of topical retinoid or benzoyl peroxide treatments along with topical antibiotics.
Oral isotretinoin is the best oral retinoid treatment for severe acne. It reduce* sebum (oil) secretion, acnes infection as well as has anti-inflammatory properties. It is used for patient that does not respond to regular treatment of severe acne.
It is of major importance that the patient with acne does not manipulate their lesions. Manipulation (pinching, squeezing, etc.) of any type may result in worsening of any existing disease, potentially enhancing the chance for scarring and producing more long-lasting pimples. It is prudent therefore to avoid magnifying mirrors.
Stay out of the sun and tanning beds. Tanning damages you skin. In addition, some acne medications make the skin very sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light, which you get from both the sun and indoor tanning devices.
These two products used together go a long way toward reversing the steps that cause acne. The first step in the process that causes acne is accumulation of dead skin. Salicylic acid breaks up clumps of dead skin. The second step in the process that causes acne is accumulation of oil and bacteria in a pore. The salicylic acid helps oil escape the pore and benzoyl peroxide kills acne bacteria in 48 hours or less. Benzoyl peroxide also helps clear off old skin cells around pores.
Some kids will rarely get a pimple — those lucky ducks! But many kids will get some pimples, even if they take steps to prevent acne. It’s totally normal. In fact, some girls who have a handle on their acne may find that it comes out a few days before they get their periods. This is a common problem called premenstrual acne and is caused by hormonal changes in the body. Boys undergo hormonal changes, too, and may be more likely to suffer from severe forms of acne.
First, let’s talk about what causes acne. Pimples form when the oil and dead skin cells on your skin combine to form a plug that blocks the pores. “As the P. acnes bacteria that naturally live on skin overgrow within this plugged follicle, the area becomes inflamed and this is when you start to see papules, pustules, and cystic lesions,” RealSelf dermatologist Sejal Shah, M.D., tells SELF. The treatments ahead work to exfoliate away dead skin cells, suck up excess oil, stop inflammation, and kill the P. acnes bacteria. There are even a few treatments that target hormonal acne specifically.
Atrophic acne scars have lost collagen from the healing response and are the most common type of acne scar (account for approximately 75% of all acne scars). They may be classified as ice-pick scars, boxcar scars, and rolling scars. Ice-pick scars are narrow (less than 2 mm across), deep scars that extend into the dermis. Boxcar scars are round or ovoid indented scars with sharp borders and vary in size from 1.5–4 mm across. Rolling scars are wider than icepick and boxcar scars (4–5 mm across) and have a wave-like pattern of depth in the skin.
Monitoring of LFTs is recommended during treatment. This is usually only necessary in patients with pre-existing liver disease, co-morbidities or those receiving high-dose treatment, however, guidelines recommend monitoring all patients prescribed isotretinoin. Cessation of treatment is not required in patients with mild increases in liver enzyme levels. If liver enzymes are > 2.5 times the upper limit of normal, it is recommended to cease isotretinoin and investigate further. Levels usually return to normal within two weeks of cessation.
The ruling is recorded in the US Federal Register and has the force of law for acne product makers in the USA. But the FDA doesn’t just regulate how much of these ingredients should go into a product. It also requires certain warnings for their use:
^ Jump up to: a b Foti, C; Romita, P; Borghi, A; Angelini, G; Bonamonte, D; Corazza, M (September 2015). “Contact dermatitis to topical acne drugs: a review of the literature”. Dermatologic Therapy (Review). 28 (5): 323–9. doi:10.1111/dth.12282. PMID 26302055.
Most cases of mild comedonal acne occur in teenagers and young adults, and these can usually be treated with traditional topical creams and gels. The most common of these are retinoids, like Retin-A, Differin, Renova, and Tazorac. They work by unblocking clogged pores.
Clinical trials have shown that estrogen-containing oral contraceptives can be helpful;31–33 the various formulations are thought to decrease levels of free testosterone by increasing sex-hormone-binding globulin and are considered equally effective. The choice of combined oral contraceptive should be based on a patient’s tolerance and potential side effects. It is not known whether other estrogen-containing contraceptives (e.g., vaginal rings, transdermal patches) are effective. Contraceptives containing only progesterone may worsen acne.4
Oatmeal is much more gentle. Yet, don’t underestimate its properties. It contains saponins which is a a naural plant based cleanser that will help remove dirt and oil. It has also anti inflammatory and antioxydant properties that will help with red patches.
Inflammatory Acne: Inflammatory acne is red bumps and pustules, not whiteheads, blackheads and comedones. It does not necessarily start as them, either. It arises on its own. Whiteheads, blackheads or comedones that become inflamed can be painful and unsightly. Persistent inflammatory acne may require treatment by a physician or dermatologist, in addition to over-the-counter acne remedies.
After cleansing the face, and the use of some local anesthesics, a needle is punctured into the scar. The sharp end of the needle will break the fibrous strands that connect the skin’s upper layer to its lower layer. This releases the connection and stimulates the production of new collagen to improve the scar’s appearance.
Dermatologists take these reports seriously. That’s why dermatologists are conducting research studies to find out whether isotretinoin is directly responsible. Proving or disproving this is not as easy as it sounds. One reason is research shows that people who have severe acne often become depressed. This is true for people who have never taken isotretinoin.
Isotretinoin is a major teratogen, and will cause significant birth defects or spontaneous abortion in approximately half of all pregnant women taking the medicine.21, 22 Practitioners should obtain an up-to-date and reliable sexual history from the patient and ensure that all females of reproductive age are: 17
Certain hormones called androgens are an additional factor in causing acne. Androgens are male hormones that are present in both men and women but are present at higher levels in men. Androgens do two things: First, they enlarge the sebaceous glands in the skin. Second, they cause these glands to increase sebum (oil) production. The increased sebum production exacerbates plug formation and serves as more “food” for the bacteria. Androgens surge at puberty, which is why teens develop armpit and pubic hair and why boys develop facial hair and deeper voices. This hormonal surge also contributes to the development of acne in teens.
The previous scar variations are commonly caused by a tissue loss. In the case of a hypertrophic scar, this is the contrary, there’s an overproduction of collagen, which is why it appears like a mass.